Opportunistic and Deep Mycoses

Coccidioides immitis  (Southwest USA)
  • Located in desert soil
  • Characteristic structures
  • In the environment:  Arthroconidia
  • In the body:  Sphereules are pathognomonic

Blastomyces dermatitidis  (north central and southeast USA)
  • Associated with water

Lymphocutaneous Sporotrichosis

Mucocutaneous mycoses:  candida and dermatophytosis (get inflammatory response)
  • Candida albicans
  • Primary cutaneous candidiasis
  • Mucocutaneous candidiasis

  • Wide range of infections
  • Candida albicans is the most virulent species
  • Candida spp. are common organisms of the skin, GI and UG tracts.
  • Candidiasis is a disease of compromised hosts.

Mucocutaneous (T CELL IMPAIRMENT)
  • Systems affected:
  • GI tract, skin, vagina
  • Onychomycosis
  • Keratitis
  • Symptoms:  Odynophagia, stridor, etc.
  • Diagnosis: white pseudomembranous plaques with hyphae, pseudohyphae, and budding yeast.
  • Groups at risk
  • HIV patients
  • Diabetics
  • Pregnancy
  • Age
  • Antibiotics
  • Steroids

Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis – autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidosis ectodermal dystrophy
  • Inherited disorder of CMI to candida along with polyendocrinopathies
  • Intractable candida infection of the mucocutaneous areas
  • Concurrent adrenal insufficiency and hypoparathyroidism
  • Type I diabetes
  • Hypothryroidism
  • Hypogonadism
  • Ectodermal dystrophy

Deeply invasive candidiasis (think CANCER)
  • Systems affected/ symptoms and signs:
  • Candidemia
  • Endocarditis – organism is sticky
  • Hepatosplenomegaly
  • Acute, shocklike syndrome
  • Renal dysfunction

At risk groups:  

  • Altered barriers
  • Neutropenia
  • Transplant
  • Hemodialysis
  • Pathogenesis
  • Adherence and colonization
  • Penetration through mucosal barriers and angioinvasions/access through catheters
  • Hematogenous spread
  • Replication yields necrosis +/- abscess with budding yeast and hyphae
  • Look at the fundus!  Candida goes to the eyes!

Virulence factors of Candida
  • Surface receptors
  • Cell wall is an immune modulator
  • Hydrolytic enzymes – e.g. acid protease, phospholipase
  • Host mimicry – e.g. C3D receptor
  • Dimorphism – makes it hardy!
  • Germ tube + species.

  • Fungus confined to the stratum corneum or distal portions of hair
  • Tinea versicolor:  Malassezia furfur
  • Pigmentation changes due to fungal effect on melanocytes
  • Can cause folliculitis
  • Can cause fungemia in neonates with indwelling vascular catheters receiving total nutrition with lipids.
  • Malassezia furfur is a lipophilic yeast and it requires fatty acids to grow.


  1. mbbs in Philippines
    Every year, almost 8000 foreign students take admission in Philippines Medical universities and out of which around 50% are Indian students. The standard of education in Philippines universities is well known around the world. Thousands of doctors from these medical universities are sent to various countries like USA and UK every year. There are around 2299 higher educational institutions and 40 medical colleges. The main benefits of pursuing MD degree from

    Top Medical Colleges in Philippines :


    Top Searched Topics on MBBS in Philippines

    study mbbs in philippines
    philippines medical colleges list
    best medical colleges in philippines for indian students
    philippines medical colleges
    best medical colleges in philippines
    mci approved medical colleges in philippines

    for more information contact us : +91 90329 55688

  2. UV GULLAS COLLEGE OF MEDICINE is one of Top Medical College in Philippines in Cebu city. International students have the oppertunity to study medicine in phillipines at affordable cost and world class University. The college has successful alumni who have achieved well in the fields of law, business, politics, academe, medicine, sports and other endeavors. At University of the Visayas, we prepare students for a global competition.

    Direct MBBS Admissions Open: 2020-21
    Mobile No: +91 90329 55688
    Apply Now: https://www.careerplus.org.in/philippines-medical-college/uv-gullas-college-of-medicine

  3. MBBS in Philippines Wisdom Overseas is authorized India's Exclusive Partner of Southwestern University PHINMA, the Philippines established its strong trust in the minds of all the Indian medical aspirants and their parents. Under the excellent leadership of the founder Director Mr. Thummala Ravikanth, Wisdom meritoriously won the hearts of thousands of future doctors and was praised as the “Top Medical Career Growth Specialists" among Overseas Medical Education Consultants in India.

    Why Southwestern University Philippines
    5 years of total Duration
    3D simulator technological teaching
    Experienced and Expert Doctors as faculty
    More than 40% of the US returned Doctors
    SWU training Hospital within the campus
    More than 6000 bedded capacity for Internship
    Final year (4th year of MD) compulsory Internship approved by MCI (No need to do an internship in India)
    Vital service centers and commercial spaces
    Own Hostel accommodations for local and foreign students
    Safe, Secure, and lavish environment for vibrant student experience
    All sports grounds including Cricket, Volleyball, and others available for students


Popular Posts