is caused by the yeast Candida albicans, and other Candida species, which are normal body flora found in the skin,mouth,vagina, and intestines.
Infections occur when competing bacterial flora are eliminated, for example, by antibacterial antibiotics, allowing the yeast to overgrow.
Candida infections have various manifestations depending on the plaques on the oral mucosa, tongue, or gums. The plaques can become confluent and ulcerated and spread to the throat. Most HIV-positive individuals eventually develop oral candidiasis, which often spreads to the esophagus. The latter condition is considered an indicator of full-blown AIDS.
it presents as itching and burning pain of the vulva and vagina, accompained by a thick or thin white discharge. HIV-positive females often experience recurrent vaginal candidiasis.
is a potentially life-threating infection that occurs in debilitated individuals, cancer patients ( with neutropenia secondary to chemotherapy), individuals on systemic corticosteroids, and patients treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Systemic candidiasis may involve the gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, liver, and spleen.
Both oral and vaginal infections are treated topically with nystatin or Clotrimazole. Oral systemic antifungal agents such as ketoconazole, fluconazole, and itraconazole are preferred for ease of administration and increased efficacy.
Amphotericin B by itself or in combination with flucytosine is used in systemic disease.