Expulsion of product of conception at any time before full term.
After a pregnancy is apparent, the loss of the fetus up to 24 weeks is usually called a ‘spontaneous abortion’ or ‘miscarriage’; from 24 weeks to full term, it may be called a ‘premature birth’.
The punishment- 3 years imprisonment to transportation for life.

1. Natural:


2. Artificial:


Criminal abortion

  • A criminal abortion is the deliberate ending of a pregnancy outside any legal provisions that have been made by the state for this act. A criminal abortion is a serious criminal offence

Methods of performing illegal abortion:

  • Drugs and toxins have been used for millennia to try to remove unwanted pregnancies, but most of them are quite ineffective.
  • In South-East Asia, unripe pineapple is alleged to produce miscarriage. However, none of these substances is known to have any predictable or significant effect on the uterus
  • Other substances that have a contractile effect on smooth muscle have a better theoretical chance of success and these include ergot, pituitary extracts and quinine.

  • Other substances normally used in obstetrics, particularly prostaglandins, are also used to induce abortions and are potentially more potent .
  • Another group of chemicals is the strong purgatives such as colocynth, croton oil or jalap, which simply cause general debility to the woman, but they are highly unlikely to cause an abortion.
  • Instrumentation is commonly practised, involving a wide variety of devices from surgical probes and bougies to the crudest implements made of metal or wood, as well as bicycle spokes, metal coat-hangers or even twigs from trees.
  • The dangers of instrumentation are perforation and infection.

  • The fundus may be perforated and the instrument pushed up into the intestines or even the liver.
  • General violence in an attempt to induce a ‘spontaneous’ abortion may still be encountered on rare occasions.
  • Other methods that are thought to be capable of inducing a ‘spontaneous’ abortion include the taking of very hot baths, ingestion of large quantities of alcohol, vaginal douches with many substances, and violent exercise such as skipping, jumping and even riding horses or bicycles over rough ground.
  • Syringe aspiration is a method used by both legal and criminal abortionists.

Drugs for abortion

Mechanical Violence for Abortion
  1. Violent exercise like jumping, cycling, horse riding, heavy weight lifting, driving on rough roads.
  2. Severe pressure on abdomen- blow, kick, jumping over abdomen.
  3. Cupping on hypogastrium
  4. Hot and cold bath alternatively

  1. Dilatation of cervix- instrumentation, abortion stick, curettage, electricity.
  2. Local irritation by abortifacient

Legal termination of pregnancy

Many countries now have legal provisions for the medical termination of pregnancy. This is often called ‘therapeutic abortion’,

  • The termination must be performed by a registered medical practitioner.
  • It must be carried out in a Health Service hospital or a place specifically registered for the purpose.
  • Two registered medical practitioners must examine the woman (not necessarily together) and certify that grounds for termination exist.
  • Neither of these doctors needs to be the doctor who actually performs the operation.
  • The termination must be notified to medical officers of the appropriate government department.

Consent to termination of pregnancy

  • The only consent that is required for termination of pregnancy is from the woman herself, provided she is competent to make that decision.
  • The consent of a husband or permanent partner (if he accompanies the woman) may be obtained as good clinical practice; however, the woman’s wishes are paramount and a husband’s or partner’s objections are not relevant in English law.
  • Any competent young girl may seek medial advice and may consent on her own to an abortion, although for girls under 16 the doctor should seek to encourage them to discuss the matter with their parents or carers

A photograph of only historic interest in the UK. This
woman had died of air embolism after attempting to induce an
abortion with a Higginson syringe, which can be seen below her
right foot.

Autopsy appearance of a septic uterus following an
illegal abortion.

Differences b/w criminal & natural abortion
  • Cause- natural
  • Genital tract- not injured
  • Foreign body in genital tract- not present
  • Sepsis- not usually
  • Signs of violence- nil
  • Toxic drug effect- nil
  • Fetal injury- nil


  • May be injured
  • May be present
  • Frequent
  • Usually present
  • May be present
  • May be present

Complications of criminal abortion

  1. Shock
  2. Haemorrhage
  3. Air or fat embolism
  4. Perforation of uterus
  5. Sepsis
  6. Poisoning by drugs
  7. Sub-involution of uterus
  8. Death


  1. mbbs in Philippines
    Every year, almost 8000 foreign students take admission in Philippines Medical universities and out of which around 50% are Indian students. The standard of education in Philippines universities is well known around the world. Thousands of doctors from these medical universities are sent to various countries like USA and UK every year. There are around 2299 higher educational institutions and 40 medical colleges. The main benefits of pursuing MD degree from

    Top Medical Colleges in Philippines :


    Top Searched Topics on MBBS in Philippines

    study mbbs in philippines
    philippines medical colleges list
    best medical colleges in philippines for indian students
    philippines medical colleges
    best medical colleges in philippines
    mci approved medical colleges in philippines

    for more information contact us : +91 90329 55688

  2. UV GULLAS COLLEGE OF MEDICINE is one of Top Medical College in Philippines in Cebu city. International students have the oppertunity to study medicine in phillipines at affordable cost and world class University. The college has successful alumni who have achieved well in the fields of law, business, politics, academe, medicine, sports and other endeavors. At University of the Visayas, we prepare students for a global competition.

    Direct MBBS Admissions Open: 2020-21
    Mobile No: +91 90329 55688
    Apply Now: https://www.careerplus.org.in/philippines-medical-college/uv-gullas-college-of-medicine

  3. Similarly as with any injury, people regularly attempt to "fail to remember" the experience and deny or disregard any agony that may result. Numerous just don't relate their trouble to the abortion experience. cytotec comprar

  4. Thousands of doctors from these medical universities are sent to different countries like the USA and UK every year. International students have the opportunity to study medicine in the Philippines at an affordable price and at a world-class university. The college has successful alumni who have excelled in the fields of law, business, politics, academia, medicine, sports, and other endeavors. Many do not simply relate to the problem of abortion.

    Custom Metal Fabrication

  5. I read the above article and I got some knowledge from your article.Drug rehab Bakersfield ca It's actually great and useful data for us. Thanks for share it.

  6. my Instagram followers and I’m sure they’ll enjoy it as well. It’s an amazing lighting idea. I wanna make it your idea. I think this amazing lighting idea could be beautified our Christmas Day. travel

  7. There is a possibility that the plants will be washed later in the microwave oven, do not use staples, paper clips, or other metal

    objects. Sometimes additional information is required to provide complete differentiation, as well as special staining techniques.

    There is a possibility that the plants will be washed later in the microwave oven, do not use staples, paper clips, or other metal

    objects. Sometimes additional information is required to provide complete differentiation, as well as special staining


  8. On the off chance that we put enough solar panels in the Sahara desert to cover only one percent of it, we could create enough power to control the whole planet.Sheet mask material

  9. I am thankful to you for sharing this article here.It's a nice article, Which you have shared here . Your article is very informative and I really liked the way you expressed your views in this post.Game

  10. Some truly wonderful work on behalf of the owner of this internet site , perfectly great articles

    see here
    see here
    see here

  11. Dubai Fun Club for luxurious Dubai Escorts and entertainment services. You can easily find the best Escorts in Dubai on our website.


Popular Posts