Type 1 diabetes (β-cell destruction): Immune-mediated, Idiopathic
Type 2 diabetes (insulin resistance with relative insulin deficiency)
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), caused by mutations in:
Hepatocyte nuclear factor (MODY1)
Genetic defects in insulin processing or insulin action
Defects in proinsulin conversion
Insulin gene mutations
Insulin receptor mutations
Exocrine pancreatic defects
Coxsackie virus B
Drugs: Glucocorticoids, Thyroid hormone, Protease inhibitors, b-adrenergic agonists, Thiazides, Nicotinic acid, Phenytoin
Genetic syndromes associated with diabetes
Gestational diabetes mellitus.
Dx of DM:(diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus)
A random blood glucose concentration of 200 mg/dL or higher, with classical signs and symptoms
A fasting glucose concentration of 126 mg/dL or higher on more than one occasion, or
An abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), in which the glucose concentration is 200 mg/dL or higher 2 hours after a standard carbohydrate load (75 gm of glucose.
Pt with impaired glucose tolerance have a significant risk of progressing to overt diabetes.