Acute Infections of URT.(upper respiratory tract)

Common cold or coryza: includes rhinitis, pharyngitis and laryngitis
rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, respiratory syncytial viruses, parainfluenza and influenza
viruses, adenoviruses, enteroviruses, group A β-hemolytic streptococci

complicated by the development of bacterial otitis media or sinusitis.

Rhinitis and sinusitis may be allergic or infective- if chronic can lead to formation of nasal polyps

Acute pharyngitis

Streptococcal tonsillitis
peritonsillar abscesses ("quinsy")
post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis
acute rheumatic fever

Acute Infections

Coxsackievirus A may produce pharyngeal vesicles and ulcers (herpangina).

Infectious mononucleosis, caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)- kissing disease

Acute bacterial epiglottitis

vaccination against H. influenzae has greatly decreased the incidence of this disease

Acute laryngitis can result from inhalation of irritants, allergic reactions or due to any pathogens described above including tuberculosis

Diptheric laryngitis forms a pseudomembrane, aspiration of which may cause obstruction of major airways and absorption of bacterial exotoxins can producing myocarditis, peripheral neuropathy
parainfluenza virus is the most common cause of laryngotracheobronchitis, more commonly known as croup

Viral infections in the upper respiratory tract predispose the patient to secondary bacterial infection, particularly by staphylococci, streptococci, and H. influenzae.


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