-Excess air inside the lungs.
-Chronic obstruction,due to excess mucus and inflammatory edema of bronchiolar epithelium.
-Difficult to expire,entrapment of air in the alveoli
and overstreching them
-Destruction of as much as 50% -80% Alveolar walls.
-Brochiolar obstruction increases airways resistance during expiration
-Loss of alveolar walls greatly decreases the diffusing capacity of the lungs to Oxygenate the blood and remove CO2 from the blood.
-Extremely abnormal ventilation--perfusion ratios.
-Loss of large portion of alveolar walls also decreases the number of pulmonary capillaries through which blood can pass as a result,the pulmonary vascular resistance often increases markedly, causing Pulmonary hypertension,this in turn overloads the right side of the heart and frequently causes right-sided Heart failure.
Chronic emphysema usually progress slowly over many years.
The person develops both Hypoxia and Hypercapnia because of Hypoventilation of many alveoli plus loss ofalveolar walls.the net result of all these effect is severe, prolonged devastating air hunger that can last for years until the hypoxia and hypercapnia cause death a high penalty to pay for smoking..
Special regards by
Dr.M M ADNAN